CSE SOLUTION SITE



E-Commerce Question List | Solve

What is Business Model? Briefly explain different business models in E-Commerce

# Business Model :
 
 A business model is the plan implemented by a company to generate revenue and make a profit from operations.The model includes the components and functions of the business as well as the revenues it generates and the expenses it incurs.Business models are used to describe and classify business especially in an entrepreneurial setting but they are also used by managers inside companies to explore possibilities for future development.Business models are also referred to in some instances within the context of accounting for purposes of public reporting.

Briefly explain different business models in E-Commerce .

# E-Commerce or Electronic Commerce business models can generally categorized in following categories :

1. Business - to - Business(B2B)

2. Business - to - Consumers(B2C)

3. Consumers - to - Consumers(C2C)

4. Consumers - to - Business(C2B)

5. Business - to - Government(B2G)

6. Government - to - Business(G2B)

7. Government - to - Citizen(B2B)


# Business - to Business(B2B) :
                                                        Website following B2B business model sells its product to an intermediate buyer who then sells the product to the final customer. As an example, a wholesaler places an order from a company's website and after receiving the consignment sells the end product to final customer who comes to buy the product at wholesaler's retail outlet.


# Business - to - Consumer(B2C) :
                                                            Website following B2C business model sells its product directly to a customer. A customer can view products shown on the website of business organization.The customer can choose a product and order the same website will send notification to the business organization will dispatch the product/goods to the customer.


#  Consumer - to - Consumer(C2C) :
                                                             Website following  C2C business model helps consumer to sell their assets like residential property, cars, motorcycles etc or rent a room by publishing their information on the website. Website may or may not charge the consumer for its services. Another consumer may opt to buy the product of the first customer by viewing the post/advertisement on the website.

# Consumer - to - Business(C2B) :
                                                         In this model, a consumer approaches website showing multiple business organization for a particular service. Consumer places an estimate of amount he/she wants to speed for a particular service.

# Business - to -Government(B2G) :
                                                              Business - to -government  model is a variant of B2B model. Such websites are used by government to trade and exchange information with various business organization.Such websites are accredited by the government and provide a medium to business to submit applications forms to the government.

# Government - to - Business(G2B) :
                                                               Government uses B2G model website to approach business organizations. Such website to approach business organizations. Such website support auctions, tenders and application submission functionalities.

# Government - to -Citizen(G2C) :
                                                             Government uses G2C model website to approach citizen in general. Such website support auctions of vehicles, machinery or any other material.
 

What is M-Commerce?

M-Commerce :
M-Commerce is the transmission of user data without wires. M-Commerce is also the management of the processes that handle the products or service needs of consumer via a mobile phone and the sale of products and services anytime. M-Commerce also refers to business transactions and payment conducted in a non-pc based environment M-commerce is not about selling products or services on a mobile device.

Describe the factors you should consider if you are planning to conduct business

Describe the factors you should consider if you are planning to conduct business :
 online
#  Conduct Business Online :
                                                 A sound E-business strategy has helped many U.S companies to reduce their costs and increase their productivity and sales. The internet allows you to do international business independent of time differences and office hours. The resources in their section help you better understand how E-Commerce can help your export business.

1. E-Commerce is valuable for all business :
                                                                                         Investor word defines E-Commerce as "the buying and selling of products over the internet" any transaction that is completed solely through electronic measures can be considered in E-Commerce.

2. Time is money :
                                       From a consumer standpoint, it is more efficient to shop online because it saves time.

3. The niche Market :
                                             E-Commerce i the perfect solution for a company whose target audience is a niche market.if you sell a special item you need to be online cause E-Commerce websites have proven successfully to retailer whose core audience is a highly segmented part of the overall population.

4. Low Overhead :
                                        E-Commerce website has low overhead costs. It is relatively cheap to design a website with an online store. 

How does a virtual corporation use the Internet, Intranets and Extranets to form a virtual work group? Explain

# A virtual corporation is a specific example of networked organization cooperative agreement between two or more business entities to combine their resources in order to a achieve a shared goal.It is called a virtual corporation.

Business use of the internet is expanding from an electronic information exchange to a broad platform for strategic business applications.

    collaboration among business applications.
    providing customer and vendor support.
    Buying and selling products and services.
    Enterprise communications and collaboration
    Strategic business alliances.


An intranet is a network inside an organization that uses internet technologies to provide for enterprise information sharing communications collaboration and the support the business processes.

Use of Intranets :

    Using an intranet browser and pc or NC workstation to send and receive E-mail, Voice-mail, Paging and faxes to communicate with others.
    Using intranet group ware features to improve team and project collaboration with service such as discussions groups, chat rooms, an audio and video conferencing 
    Internet software browsers, servers and search engines can help you easily navigate and locate the business.


Extranet :
                       Extranet are network links that use internet technologies to interconnect the intranet of business with the intranets of its customers.Suppliers, or other business partners.

    Establish direct private network links between themselves or create private secure internet links between them called virtual private networks.
    Use the unsecured internet as the extranet link between its intranet and consumers and others, but rely on encryption of sensitive data and its own firewall systems to private adequate security.


How are credit card transition carried out in normal everyday shopping? What are the special problems which are encountered when credit card transition is to be carried out in e-commerce?

** To sell things on the web, a merchant must accept credit cards. To accept a credit card payment on the internet you must first open a merchant account with your bank.To complete the cycle the merchant needs a shopping cart program that allows users to collect their purchases.The shopping cart interfaces with a payment processing system such as cyber cash.;Calculates the costs and taxes and delivers a complete bill for customer approval.To improve fraud detection cyber cash offers it online merchant customers a real time fraud detection service to show when a customer is trying to make fraudulent online purchases using credit cards.


1. Most card issuers charge interest from the day a charge is posted to the account if payment is not made in full monthly.Some charge interest from the data of purchase.Several ways be fore they have even paid the store on your behalf.

2. For the merchant credit card transitions result in intermediate credit to the credit to the merchants bank account.

3. A cardholder can dispute charges or purchase to the card issuer. In this case, the merchants acquiring bank can reverse payments or adjust payments as the situation warrants. 

What is electronic funds transfer ? How are cheques cleared in this type of transfer?

Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) :
                                                                                 EFT is a computer based system that facilities the transfer of money or processing financial transactions between two  financial institutions the same day or overnight.Interbank, transfer is one of the earliest forms of electronic payment systems on private networks.

EFT is the transfer of credit between banks where payments flow electronically from the payment bank to the payee's bank. EFT is one of the earliest examples of online payment systems in banking.Although funds transfer account for small portion of the total non-cash payments. 
EFT is used when a high priority is placed on timelines and certainty of payment.

There are two clearing system for EFT transactions :

1. The National EFT clearing systems is operated by IRECC Ltd and is used to clear EFT transaction.  

2.Step-2 is a europe wide clearing system for euro-denominated tansactions.

Discuss the web store requirements that you would have to implement to support a successful retail business on the web

# Most business-to-consumer E-commerce ventures take the form of retail business sites on the world wide web.Whether a huge retail web portal like Amazon.com or a small specially web retailer, the primary ficus of such E-tailers is to develop, operate and manage their websites so they become high priority destinations for consumer who will repeatedly choose to go there to buy products services.Thus, these website must be able to demonstration the key factors for e-commerce success that we have just covered.Web store requirements that you would have to implement to support a successful retail business on the web.

(i) Developing a web store

(ii) Serving your customers

(iii) Managing a web store.


Developing a web store :
                                                              many companies use simple website design software tools and pre-designed templates provide by their website hosting service to construct  their web retail store.That includes building your web store front and product catalog web pages, as well as tools to provide shopping cart features, process orders, handle credit card payments and so forth of course large companies can use their own software developers or hire an outside website development contractor to  build a custom-design e-commerce site.Once you build your website, you must develop it as retail web business by marketing it in a variety of ways that attract visitors to your site and transform them into layal web customers.


Serving your customers :
                                                               Most e-tailers use several website tools to create user profiles, customer files and personal web pages your website should have the look and feel of an attractive, friendly and efficient web store.Providing customer support for your web store is an essential website capability.Providing links to related website from your web store can help customers find additional information and resources.

Managing a web store :
                                                           Web hosting companies must enable their web store clients to be available online twenty-four hour a day and seven days a week all year.This requires them to build or contract for sufficient network, capacity to handle peak web traffic loads and redundant network servers and power source to-respond to system.Many hosting services also offer their clients 24-hours tech support to help them with any technical problem that arise. 
 

Write the characteristics of a business portal?

The characteristics of a business portal :
** A portal is simply a website that is designed to collect and organized information and operations for any business.The first part of business portal strategy should be determining the audience that you want to serve.

The characteristics of a business portal are :

* Search and navigation

* Information Integration(content Management)

* Personalization

* Task Management and workflow

* Collaboration and groupware

* Integrations of applications and business intelligence

* Infrastructure functionality


*** This functionality forms the basis for most of the successful public web portals.
Elaborate on the main services of SSL.

** The secure sockets layer (SSL) is a computer networking portal that manages server authentication client authentication and encrypted communication between servers and clients.The secure socket Layer(SSL) technology used for the websites or web application which need more security.Secure socket layer(SSL) is composed of two layers : 

(1) At the lower layer, a portal for transferring data using a variety of predefined cipher and authentications combinations called the SSL record protocol. 

(2) On the upper layer, a protocol for initial authentication and transfer of encryption keys called the SSL handshake protocol.
The secure socket layers (SSL) protocol addresses the following security issues : 

(1) Privacy : After the symmetric key is established in the initial handshake, the message are encrypted using this key.

(2) Integrity : 
       Messages contain a message authentication code (MAC) ensuring the message integrity.       

(3) Authentication :
                                                 During the handshake, the client authentication the server using an asymmetric or public key.

                      SSL uses a combination of public-key and private key.These keys work, together to establish an encrypt connection. 
 

Distinguish between E-Commerce And E-Business

Distinguish between E-Commerce And E-Business :
Credit Card Debit Card Smart Card
1. A Credit card is basically an electronic card with magnetic data strip or a chip, issued to customers by banks and other credit agencies. 1. Debit cards are magnetic strip and chip enabled cards, issued to customers by their respective banks. 1. A smart card contains a special embedded microprocessor, which is a computer processor or a microchip.
2. credit cards are lines of credit when you use a credit card, the issuer puts money toward the transaction.This is a loan you are expected to pay back in full unless you won't to be charged interest. 2. Any time you use a debit card to buy something, money is deducted from your account with a debit card you can really only spend the money you have available to you. 2. Smart cards applications benefit consumers where their life and business habits intersect with payment processing technologies.
3. credit cards in the U.S are not very secure and of themselves many still deted card technology.However consumers are not held liable for this poor security. 3. A PIN makes them secure so long as no one steals the card number and PIN as long as you don't lose the card itself.If the card is stolen, debit cards are very insecure . 3. Smart cards offer more security and confidentially than any other financial or transaction storage card the market.They are a safe place to store sensitive or personal information .
4.Credit Card Not required to be connected to a checking account. 4. Checking or saving accounts . 4. Smart cards links directly to the Internet .
5. Credit cards are mostly used in online payments, to sell things or the web. 5. Debit cards can be used with a PIN almost everywhere retail stores, gasoline, resturants and pay phones. 5. Smart cards widely used in telecommunications industry.
6. For the merchant credit card transactions result in immediate credit to the merchants bank account. 6. Debit cards are more readily accepted by merchants than are checks.especially in countries where check cashing and check processing are not widely used. 6. The retail industry widely uses applications of the smart card more specially to identify and reward customers.

Difference between Credit card, Debit Card and Smart Card

Difference between Credit card, Debit Card and Smart Card :
Credit Card Debit Card Smart Card
1. A Credit card is basically an electronic card with magnetic data strip or a chip, issued to customers by banks and other credit agencies. 1. Debit cards are magnetic strip and chip enabled cards, issued to customers by their respective banks. 1. A smart card contains a special embedded microprocessor, which is a computer processor or a microchip.
2. credit cards are lines of credit when you use a credit card, the issuer puts money toward the transaction.This is a loan you are expected to pay back in full unless you won't to be charged interest. 2. Any time you use a debit card to buy something, money is deducted from your account with a debit card you can really only spend the money you have available to you. 2. Smart cards applications benefit consumers where their life and business habits intersect with payment processing technologies.
3. credit cards in the U.S are not very secure and of themselves many still deted card technology.However consumers are not held liable for this poor security. 3. A PIN makes them secure so long as no one steals the card number and PIN as long as you don't lose the card itself.If the card is stolen, debit cards are very insecure . 3. Smart cards offer more security and confidentially than any other financial or transaction storage card the market.They are a safe place to store sensitive or personal information .
4.Credit Card Not required to be connected to a checking account. 4. Checking or saving accounts . 4. Smart cards links directly to the Internet .
5. Credit cards are mostly used in online payments, to sell things or the web. 5. Debit cards can be used with a PIN almost everywhere retail stores, gasoline, resturants and pay phones. 5. Smart cards widely used in telecommunications industry.
6. For the merchant credit card transactions result in immediate credit to the merchants bank account. 6. Debit cards are more readily accepted by merchants than are checks.especially in countries where check cashing and check processing are not widely used. 6. The retail industry widely uses applications of the smart card more specially to identify and reward customers.

How a Smart Card Work?

Smart Card Work :
Operationally Smart card require a special reader to connect the card with a computer system programmed for this purpose.Smart Card have special contacts that match those in the reader when the card is inserted into the lot for processing.The newest smart cards are, "contactless".Infrared communication technology allows the reader to exchange data.In a retail store, the reader normally is attached to a cash register.In buildings authorized users scan the smart card across a reader attached to the door and programmed to a computer-based recognition system.With remote contactless cards, the card can be read from a distance.This is how tollbooth electronic payment readers work.Smart Card offer moe security and confidentiality than any other financial or transaction storage card on the market.They are a safe place to store sensitive information or personal information.Smart Card have their share of problems.

How will you purchase products from on-line?

Purchase products from on-line :
We can purchase products from on-line shopping malls are just an electronic catalogue of products.Hence to facilitate casier access to required products, almost at major online malls allow searching ensure catalogue.


1. The first step in the online shopping is to search for the specific product categories using integrated search function.

2. Once we find the required product put it in a virtual "Shopping Cart" and continue shopping.

3. After we have added enough item;In Shopping cart, check out each of them.We can add or delete the contents in shopping cart.

4. The next step is to login using a username and pasword.

5. Many online malls first require its to register with them before allowing us to pay  for the bought items.Enter the address to when we want the product to be delivered.

6. We might also want to select the payment modes for payment here.

7. After choosing the mode of payment there will other boxes to fill our billing address or the payment details.Some on-line malls even ask for our email,phone number etc.

8. The wait for the confirmation of our order, we can also modify the order by adding or removing items.We can also cancel order if needed.

9. Keep the printed copy of the purchased order and confirmations fr records.In the event of any disputes.We will need to show these documents for verification.
 

What are the reasons to put a company on a website?

The reasons to put a company on a website are:
                            
1. To establish a presence : To be a part of the internet community and show that you are interested in serving them.

2. To network

3. To make business information available 

4. To serve your customers

5. To heighten public intereste

6. To release time sensitive materials

7. To sell things

8. To make pictures sound and film files available

9. To reach a high desirable demographic market

10. To answer frequently asked questions

11. To stay in contact with sale people

12. To open international markets

13. To crate a 24 hour service

14. To make changing information available

15. To allow feedback from customers

16. To test market new services and product

17. To reach the media

18. To reach the education and youth market

19. To reach the specialized market

20. To serve your local market 

What is e-Procurement?

e-Procurement :
E-Procurement (Electronic Procurement) is either the business-to-business or Business-to-Consumer purchase and sale of supplies and services through the internet as well as other information and networking systems, such as electronic data interchange (EDI) and Enterprise resource Planning (ERP).An important part or many B2B sites, e-Procurement is also sometimes referred to by other terms.Such as supplier exchange.Typically, e-Procurement Web sites allow qualified and registered users tom look for buyers or sellers of goods and services. Depending on the approach buyers or seller may be specify costs or invite bids.

Transactions can be initiated and completed.Ongoing purchases may qualify customers for volume discounts or special offers.E-Procurement software may make it possible to automate some buying and selling.Companies participating expect  to be able to control parts inventories more effectively, reduce purchasing agent overhead and improve manufacturing cycles.E-Procurement is expected to be integrated with the trend toward computerized supply chain management.

Define the types of e-Procuremnt

Define the types of e-Procuremnt :
There are six main types of E-Procurement :

Web-based ERP (Electronic Resource Planning) : Creating and approving purchasing requisitions, placing purchase orders and receiving goods and services by using a software system based on internet technology.

E-MRO (Maintenance, Repair and Operating) : The same as web-based ERP except that the goods and services ordered are non-product related MRO supplies.

E-Sourcing : Identifying new supplies for a specific category of purchasing requirements using internet technology.

E-tendering : Sending requests for information and prices to supplies and receiving the responses of supplies using internet technology.

E-reverse auctioning : Using internet technology to buy goods and services from a number of known or unknown suppliers.

E-informing : Gathering and distributing purchasing information both from and to internal and external parties using internet technology. 

© Copyright & reserved CSE Solve