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What is Advantages of ATM?

Advantages of ATM :
 ATM Advantages
 
ATM supports voice, video and data allowing multimedia and mixed services over a

single network. 

High evolution potential, works with existing, legacy technologies
 
Provides the best multiple service support 

Supports delay close to that of dedicated services 

Supports the broadest range of burstiness, delay tolerance and loss performance through the implementation of multiple QoS classes 

Provides the capability to support both connection-oriented and connectionless traffic using AALs 

Able to use all common physical transmission paths like SONET. 

Cable can be twisted-pair, coaxial or fiber-optic 

Ability to connect LAN to WAN 

Legacy LAN emulation 

Efficient bandwidth use by statistical multiplexing
 
Scalability 

Higher aggregate bandwidth

High speed Mbps and possibly Gbps
 

What is Disadvantages of ATM?

Disadvantages of ATM :
 Flexible to efficiency’s expense, at present, for any one application it is usually possible to find a more optimized technology 
Cost, although it will decrease with time 

New customer premises hardware and software are required
 
Competition from other technologies -100 Mbps FDDI, 100 Mbps Ethernet and fast Ethernet
 
Presently the applications that can benefit from ATM such as multimedia are rare 

The wait, with all the promise of ATM’s capabilities many details are still in the standards process
 

WWhat is benefits of ATM?

Benefits of ATM :
 High-speed communication
 
Connection-oriented service, similar to traditional telephony

Fast, hardware-based switching

A single, universal, interoperable network transport

A single network connection that can reliably mix voice, video, and data

Flexible and efficient allocation of network bandwidth
 

ARP :
The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a telecommunication protocol used for resolution of network layer addresses into link layer addresses, a critical function in multiple-access networks. ARP is used for mapping a network address (e.g. an IPv4 address) to a physical address like an Ethernet address (also named a MAC address).
Example :
picture the computers Matterhorn and Washington in an office, connected to each other on the office local area network by Ethernet cables and network switches, with no intervening gateways or routers.

What is RARP?

RARP :
The Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) is an obsolete computer networking protocol used by a client computer to request its Internet Protocol (IPv4) address from a computer network, when all it has available is its link layer or hardware address, such as a MAC address

Why do we need RARP (i.e. what function does RARP serve)?

We need RARP/function does RARP serve :
It permits a host to determine its IP address from the network. This is useful for diskless hosts which need to configure themselves dynamically upon bootstrap. In this scenario, the diskless host reads the MAC address of its network adapter and sends out a RARP request for its IP address to the network. This is typically done with a broadcast request. As such, the RARP request is not forwarded by routers. One or more RARP servers would then reply to the diskless host with a unicast reply providing the IP address. Bootp provides another mechanism for doing this function. In addition, bootp allows more data than just the IP address to be sent.

Why do we need ARP (i.e. what function does ARP serve)?

we need ARP/ function ARP serve :
It provides a mechanism to translate IP addresses into MAC addresses.

Mention the advantages of connectionless networking

Mention the advantages of connectionless networking :
IP provides a connectionless or datagram service between and systems.There are a number of advantages of connectionless internetworking.

i) A connectionless internet facility  is flexible.
It can deal with variety network, some of which are themselves connectionless.

ii) A connectionless Internet service can be made highly robust.

iii) A connectionless internet service is best for connectionless transport protocols, because it doesn't impose unnecessary overhead.

What is proxy arp? What function does it serve?

Proxy ARP And Function does it serve :
It allows host A to impersonate host B and respond to an arp request on behalf of host B. The original intention of this is to allow a router to respond to an arp request on one of its networks for a host on another of its networks. In this way, the router is able to make the different networks work in a more transparent way.

Write down the advantage of framerelay

Advantage :
 

1) It can be served high data rates typically 2Mbps.


2) Low error rates.

3) It is less expensive

4) It provides both parmanent & switched connection.

 

Write down the disadvantage of framerelay

Disadvantage :

1) No mechanism for transmitting a damaged frame.

2) Difficult to configure.

3) no network layer.

4) Moe difficult to manage.

5) One serial port at the central site.

What is Protocol?

Protocol :
A protocol is a set of rules that governs data communications. A protocol defines what is communicated, how it is communicated and when it is communicated.

What is the function of network protocol?

The functions of network protocol are :
a) Encapsulation

b) Segmentation & resembling

c) Connection Control

d) Ordered delivery

e) Flow Control

f) Error control

g) Addressing

h) Multiplexing

i) Transmission service.
 

What is references model?

References model :
References model : Protocol standard is also know as a reference model.

Describe about References model

Describe about References model :

It has two types ,These

i) OSI & ii) TCP/IP

OSI : The full form of OSI is the open System interconnection. OSI deals with connect opebn systems that is systems that are open communication with other system. It has seven phases/layer for communicating data from source to destination, this is why it is called seven layer model.

1) Application
2) Presentation
3) Session
4) Transport
5) Network
6) Data Link
7) Physical

Fig : OSI Layer

1) Physical layer : The layer od OSI that co-ordinates the function required to transmit a bit over a physical medium called physical layer. It deals with the mechanical and electrical specification of devices.

Characteristics : 
i) Physical characteristics of interfaces & media 
ii) It represents the data
iii) Data rate
iv) Synchronization of bits
v) Physical topology
vi) Transmission mode
vii) Line configuration


2) Data Link layer : The layer of OSI that transforms the physical layer to a reliable link is called data link layer.

Characteristics : 
i) It deals with framing
ii) Physical addressing
iii) Flow control
iv) Error control
v) Access control
vi) Traffic regulation mechanism


3) Network Layer : The layer that responsible source to destination to delivery of packet
multiple network is called network layer.

Characteristics :
i) Logical addressing
ii) Routing
iii) Connecting different network.

4) Transport Layer : The layer of OSI that is for process to process delivery of  the entire message is called transport layer.

Characteristics : 
i)  Service point addressing
ii) Segmentation and re-assembly
iii) Connection control
iv) Flow control
v) Error control
vi) Port control

5) Session Layer : The Layer of OSI that allows of different machine to establish session among them is called session layer.

Characteristics : 
i) Provides enhanced service to the u 
ii) It allows the user to log into a remain time sharing system.
iii) It means dialogue control among the devices
iv) It allows traffic to go in both direction at the same time
v) Provides token management facility
vi) Synchronization of the devices.

6) Presentation Layer : The layer which is concerned with the semantics of the information exchange between the two systems is called presentation layer.

Characteristics : 
i) Translation
ii) Encryption
iii) Compression
iv) Relation between the layers


7) Application Layer : The layer that provides human or user to access the network is called application layer.

Characteristics :
i) mail-Service
ii) File transfer/management
iii) Remote log in
iv) Directory service
v) Access of WWW. 

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