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Computer Graphics & Multimedia Question List | Solve

What is SRGP? Explain about SRGP.

Explain about SRGP :
SRGP :  SRGP stands for Simple Raster Graphics Package.

- SRGP consists of library functions that describe custom data types and constants.

- SRGP procedures operate on canvases, which is a 2D array of pixels.

- The depth will be the number of planes requested by the designated application.

- Every canvas has its local coordinate system.

- Multiple windows can not be controlled by SRGP application.

 

What do you mean by interactive computer Graphics?

Interactive computer Graphics :
Interactive computer Graphic is like a website, it is only useful if it is browsed by a visitor and no two visitors are exactly alike. It means the website must support the interaction of users with a variety of skills, interests and end goals. Interactive computer graphics involves the user’s interaction.

Write and explain Cohen-Sutherland line clipping clgorithm.

Write and explain Cohen-Sutherland line clipping clgorithm :
The Cohen–Sutherland algorithm is a computer graphics algorithm used for line clipping. The algorithm divides a two-dimensional space into 9 regions (or a three-dimensional space into 27 regions), and then efficiently determines the lines and portions of lines that are visible in the center region of interest (the viewport).

Algorithm:

• Both endpoints are in the viewport region (bitwise OR of endpoints == 0): trivial accept.

• Both endpoints share at least one non-visible region which implies that the line does not cross the visible region. (bitwise AND of endpoints != 0): trivial reject.

• Both endpoints are in different regions: In case of this nontrivial situation the algorithm finds one of the two points that is outside the viewport region (there will be at least one point outside). The intersection of the outpoint and extended viewport border is then calculated (i.e. with the parametric equation for the line) and this new point replaces the outpoint. The algorithm repeats until a trivial accept or reject occurs.

The numbers in the figure below are called outcodes. An outcode is computed for each of the two points in the line. The outcode will have four bits for two-dimensional clipping, or six bits in the three-dimensional case. The first bit is set to 1 if the point is above the viewport. The bits in the 2D outcode represent: Top, Bottom, Right, Left. For example the outcode 1010 represents a point that is top-right of the viewport. Note that the outcodes for endpoints must be recalculated on each iteration after the clipping occurs.

 

What is Projection?

Projection :
 
  Projection is a defense mechanism that involves taking our own unacceptable qualities or feelings and ascribing them to other people.

 Example: if you have a strong dislike for someone, you might instead believe that he or she does not like you. Projection works by allowing the expression of the desire or impulse, but in a way that the ego cannot recognize, therefore reducing anxiety.

 

What are the different projection mechanisms? - Explain in details.

The different projection mechanisms? - Explain in details :
 1. Denial:

Denial is the refusal to accept reality or fact, acting as if a painful event, thought or feeling did not exist. It is considered one of the most primitive of the defense mechanisms because it is characteristic of early childhood development.
2. Regression:

Regression is the reversion to an earlier stage of development in the face of unacceptable thoughts or impulses. For an example an adolescent who is overwhelmed with fear
3. Acting Out:

Acting Out is performing an extreme behavior in order to express thoughts or feelings the person feels incapable of otherwise expressing. Instead of saying, “I’m angry with you,”
4. Dissociation:

Dissociation is when a person loses track of time and/or person, and instead finds another representation of their self in order to continue in the moment. A person who dissociates often loses track of time
5. Compartmentalization:

Compartmentalization is a lesser form of dissociation, wherein parts of oneself are separated from awareness of other parts and behaving as if one had separate sets of values.
6. Projection:

Projection is the misattribution of a person’s undesired thoughts, feelings or impulses onto another person who does not have those thoughts, feelings or impulses. Projection is used especially when the thoughts are considered unacceptable for the person to express.

7. Reaction Formation:

Reaction Formation is the converting of unwanted or dangerous thoughts, feelings or impulses into their opposites. .
 

What is luminance ?

Luminance:
Luminance is apparent brightness, how bright an object appears to the human eye. So when you look at the world what you see is a pattern of varying luminances (if we ignore the color component). What you see on the this page you are reading is the luminance of the black letters compared to the luminance of the white screen.

Luminance is measured in candelas per square meter.
Since luminance is what we see then light sources which we look at have luminance too. The luminance of the sun and the moon give us a good idea of the huge range of brightness which the human eye can handle.

Luminance of the sun: 1,600,000,000 cd/m2.

Luminance of the moon: 2500 cd/m2.

If you look at the sun you'll get 1,600 million candles per square meter into you eye. That is why you should not look directly at the sun for very long.


What is chromaticity?

Chromaticity:
Chromaticity is an objective specification of the quality of a color regardless of its luminance. Chromaticity consists of two independent parameters, often specified as hue (h) and colorfulness (s), where the latter is alternatively called saturation, chroma, intensity,[1] or excitation purity.[2][3] This number of parameters follows from trichromacy of vision of most humans, which is assumed by most models in color science.

What is Multimedia PC?

Multimedia PC :
The Multimedia PC (MPC) was a recommended configuration for a personal computer (PC) with a CD-ROM drive. The standard was set and named by the "Multimedia PC Marketing Council", which was a working group of the Software Publishers Association (SPA, now the Software and Information Industry Association).

Write the specification of MPC - 1 and MPC - 2

Write the specification of MPC - 1 and MPC - 2 :
 The specification of MPC - 1 and MPC - 2 : 
 
Specification of MPC-1:

CPU

Minimum requirement: 386SX (or compatible) microprocessor

RAM

Minimum requirement: 2 megabytes of RAM

Magnetic Storage

Requirement: 3.5-inch, high density (1.44-MB) floppy disk drive.

Minimum requirement: 30-MB hard disk drive.

Optical Storage

Requirement: CD-ROM drive with sustained 150kB/second transfer rate; average seek time of 1 second or less; 10,000 hours MTBF; mode 1 capability (mode 2 and form 1 & 2 optional); MSCDEX 2.2 driver that implements the extended audio APIs; subchannel Q
The drive must be capable of maintaining a sustained transfer rate of 150kB/sec. without consuming more than 40 percent of the CPU bandwidth in the process. It is recommended that this capability be achieved for read block sizes no less than 16K and lead time of no more than is required to load the CD-ROM buffer with 1 read block of data.

It is recommended that the drive have on-board buffers of 64K and implement read-ahead 
buffering.

Audio

Requirement: CD-ROM drive with CD-DA (Red Book) outputs and a front panel volume control.

Requirement: 8-bit (16-bit recommended) digital-to-analog converter (DAC) with linear PCM sampling; DMA or FIFO buffered transfer capability with interrupt on buffer empty; 22.05 and 11.025 kHz sample rate mandatory.

44.1 kHz sampling rate desirable; optional stereo channels; no more than 10 percent of the CPU bandwidth required to output 11.025 or 22.05 kHz; no more than 15 percent for 44.1 kHz.

Requirement: 8-bit (16-bit recommended) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with linear PCM sampling, 11.025 kHz mandatory, (22.01 kHz, or 44.1 kHz sampling rate optional); DMA or FIFO buffered transfer capability with interrupt on buffer full; microphone input.

Requirement: Internal synthesizer hardware with multi-voice, multi-timbral capabilities, six simultaneous melody notes plus two simultaneous percussive notes.

Requirement: Internal mixing capabilities to combine input from three (recommended four) sources and present the output as a stereo, line-level audio signal at the back panel. The four sources are: CD Red Book, synthesizer, DAC (waveform), and (recommended but not required) an auxiliary input source. Each input must have at least a 3-bit volume control (eight steps) with a logarithmic taper.

A 4-bit or greater volume control is strongly recommended. If all sources are sourced with -10dB (consumer line level: 1 milliwatt into 700 ohms=0dB) without attenuation, the mixer will not clip and will output between 0 dB and +3 dB. Individual audio source and master digital volume control registers and extra line-level audio sources are highly recommended.

Video

Requirement: VGA-compatible display adapter, and a color VGA- compatible monitor. A basic Multimedia PC uses mode 12h (640 x 480, 16 colors)
. An enhanced configuration referred to as VGA+ is recommended with 640 x 480, 256 colors
.
The recommended performance goal for VGA+ adapters is to be able to blit 1, 4, and 8 bit-per-pixel DIBs (device independent bitmaps) at 350K pixels/second given 100 percent of the CPU, and at 140K pixels/second given 40 percent of the CPU. This recommendation applies to run-length encoded images and non-encoded images. The recommended performance is needed to fully support high-performance applications, such as synchronized audio-visual presentations. User Input.

Requirement: Standard 101-key IBM-style keyboard with standard DIN connector, or keyboard that delivers identical functionality utilizing key-combinations.
Requirement: Two-button mouse with bus or serial connector, with at least one additional communication port remaining free.

I/O

Requirement: Standard 9-pin or 25-pin asynchronous serial port, programmable up to 9600 bits per second (BPS), switchable interrupt channel.

Requirement: Standard 25-pin bidirectional parallel port with interrupt capability.
Requirement: 1 MIDI port with In, Out, and Thru must have interrupt support for input and FIFO transfer.

Requirement: IBM-style analog or digital joystick port.

System Software

Multimedia PC system software must offer binary compatibility with Microsoft Windows 3.0 with Multimedia Extensions or Windows 3.1.

Specification of MPC-2:

CPU

Minimum requirement: 25 MHz 486SX (or compatible) microprocessor.

RAM

Minimum requirement: 4 megabytes of RAM (8 megabytes recommended).

Magnetic Storage

Requirement: 160-MB or larger hard disk drive.

Optical Storage

Requirements: CD-ROM drive capable of sustained 300 KB/sec. transfer rate, average seek time of 400 milliseconds or less, CD-ROM XA ready (mode 1 capable, mode 2 form 1 capable, mode 2 form 2 capable), multisession capable.

At 300 KB/sec. sustained transfer rate it is recommended that no more than 60 percent of the CPU bandwidth be consumed. It is recommended that the CPU utilization recommendation be achieved for read block sizes no less than 16K and lead time of no more than is required to load the CD-ROM buffer with 1 read block of data.

Audio

Requirement: 16-bit digital-to-analog converter (DAC), 44.1 kHz sample rate mandatory, stereo channels; no more than 15 percent of the CPU bandwidth be required to output 44.1 kHz.

Requirement: 16-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with Linear PCM sampling; 44.1 kHz sample rate mandatory.

CD-ROM XA audio capability is recommended.

Support for the IMA adopted ADPCM software algorithm is recommended.

Video

Requirement: Color monitor with display resolution of 640 x 480 with 65,536 (64K) colors. The recommended performance goal for VGA+ adapters is to be able to blit 1, 4, and 8 bit-per-pixel DIBs (device independent bitmaps) at 1.2 megapixels/second given 40 percent of the CPU. This recommendation applies to run-length encoded images and non-encoded images. The recommended performance is needed to fully support demanding multimedia applications including the delivery of video with 320 x 240 resolution at 16 frames/second and 256 colors.

User Input :

No changes from Level 1.

I/O :

No changes from Level 1.

System Software :

No changes from Level 1.
 

What is multimedia authoring?

Multimedia Authoring:
An authoring system is a program that has pre-programmed elements for the development of interactive multimedia software titles. Authoring systems can be defined as software that allows its user to create multimedia applications for manipulating multimedia objects Types of Multimedia:

What are the types of Multimedia authoring Syatem?

Graphical user Interface:
  A GUI (usually pronounced GOO-ee) is a graphical (rather than purely textual) user interface to a computer. As you read this, you are looking at the GUI or graphical user interface of your particular Web browser. The term came into existence because the first interactive user interfaces to computers were not graphical; they were text-and-keyboard oriented and usually consisted of commands you had to remember and computer responses that were infamously brief. The command interface of the DOS operating system (which you can still get to from your Windows operating system) is an example of the typical user-computer interface before GUIs arrived. An intermediate step in user interfaces between the command line interface and the GUI was the non-graphical menu-based interface, which let you interact by using a mouse rather than by having to type in keyboard commands.

Today's major operating systems provide a graphical user interface. Applications typically use the elements of the GUI that come with the operating system and add their own graphical user interface elements and ideas. A GUI sometimes uses one or more metaphors for objects familiar in real life, such as the desktop, the view through a window, or the physical layout in a building. Elements of a GUI include such things as: windows, pull-down menus, buttons, scroll bars, iconic images, wizards, the mouse, and no doubt many things that haven't been invented yet. With the increasing use of multimedia as part of the GUI, sound, voice, motion video, and virtual reality interfaces seem likely to become part of the GUI for many applications. A system's graphical user interface along with its input devices is sometimes referred to as its "look-and-feel."

The GUI familiar to most of us today in either the Mac or the Windows operating systems and their applications originated at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Laboratory in the late 1970s. Apple used it in their first Macintosh computers. Later, Microsoft used many of the same ideas in their first version of the Windows operating system for IBM-compatible PCs.

When creating an application, many object-oriented tools exist that facilitate writing a graphical user interface. Each GUI element is defined as a class widget from which you can create object instances for your application. You can code or modify prepackaged methods that an object will use to respond to user stimuli.

 

What are the features of audio editing software?

The features of audio editing software :
1. Sound editing functions include cut, copy, paste, delete, insert, silence, auto-trim and more.

2. Audio effects include amplify, normalize, equalizer, envelope, reverb, echo, reverse and many more.

3. Integrated VST plugin support gives professionals access to thousands of additional tools and effects.

4. Supports almost all audio and music file formats including mp3, wav, vox, gsm, wma, au, aif, flac, real audio, ogg, aac, m4a, mid, amr, and many more.

5. Batch processing allows you to apply effects and/or convert thousands of files as a single function.

6. Scrub, search and bookmark audio for precise editing.

7. Create bookmarks and regions to easily find, recall and assemble segments of long audio files.

8.Tools include spectral analysis (FFT), speech synthesis (text-to-speech), and voice changer.

9. Audio restoration features including noise reduction and click pop removal.

10. Supports sample rates from 6 to 96kHz, stereo or mono, 8, 16, 24 or 32 bits.

11. Works directly with MixPad Multi-Track Audio Mixer.

12. Easy to use interface will have you editing in minutes.

 

What are the types of images used in multimedia system?

The types of images used in multimedia system :
1. TIFF (also known as TIF), file types ending in .tif :

TIFF stands for Tagged Image File Format. TIFF images create very large file sizes. TIFF images are uncompressed and thus contain a lot of detailed image data (which is why the files are so big) TIFFs are also extremely flexible in terms of color (they can be grayscale, or CMYK for print, or RGB for web) and content (layers, image tags).

TIFF is the most common file type used in photo software (such as Photoshop), as well as page layout software (such as Quark and InDesign), again because a TIFF contains a lot of image data.

2. JPEG (also known as JPG), file types ending in .jpg:
JPEG stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group, which created this standard for this type of image formatting. JPEG files are images that have been compressed to store a lot of information in a small-size file. Most digital cameras store photos in JPEG format, because then you can take more photos on one camera card than you can with other formats.

A JPEG is compressed in a way that loses some of the image detail during the compression in order to make the file small (and thus called “lossy” compression).

JPEG files are usually used for photographs on the web, because they create a small file that is easily loaded on a web page and also looks good.

JPEG files are bad for line drawings or logos or graphics, as the compression makes them look “bitmappy” (jagged lines instead of straight ones).

3. GIF, file types ending in .gif:

GIF stands for Graphic Interchange Format. This format compresses images but, as different from JPEG, the compression is lossless (no detail is lost in the compression, but the file can’t be made as small as a JPEG).

GIFs also have an extremely limited color range suitable for the web but not for printing. This format is never used for photography, because of the limited number of colors. GIFs can also be used for animations.

4. PNG, file types ending in .png:

PNG stands for Portable Network Graphics. It was created as an open format to replace GIF, because the patent for GIF was owned by one company and nobody else wanted to pay licensing fees. It also allows for a full range of color and better compression.

It’s used almost exclusively for web images, never for print images. For photographs, PNG is not as good as JPEG, because it creates a larger file. But for images with some text, or line art, it’s better, because the images look less “bitmappy.”

When you take a screenshot on your Mac, the resulting image is a PNG–probably because most screenshots are a mix of images and text.

5. Raw image files:

Raw image files contain data from a digital camera (usually). The files are called raw because they haven’t been processed and therefore can’t be edited or printed yet. There are a lot of different raw formats–each camera company often has its own proprietary format.

Raw files usually contain a vast amount of data that is uncompressed. Because of this, the size of a raw file is extremely large. Usually they are converted to TIFF before editing and color-correcting.

 

What do you mean by multimedia system?

Multimedia:
Multimedia is a technology which stores data as text, photo,pictures,music,sounds,graphic,film and animation and gives the methods to collect and modify the data as desired.

What are the elements of multimedia system?

 Text :

It may be an easy content type to forget when considering multimedia systems, but text content is by far the most common media type in computing applications. Most multimedia systems use a combination of text and other media to deliver functionality. Text in multimedia systems can express specific information

Images :

Digital image files appear in many multimedia applications. Digital photographs can display application content or can alternatively form part of a user interface. Interactive elements, such as buttons. Digital image files use a variety of formats and file extensions. Among the most common are JPEGs and PNGs.

Related Reading: The Advantages of Using Multimedia in Web Design

Audio :

Audio files and streams play a major role in some multimedia systems. Audio files appear as part of application content and also to aid interaction. Audio formats include MP3, WMA, Wave, MIDI and RealAudio.

Video :

Digital video appears in many multimedia applications, particularly on the Web. As with audio, websites can stream digital video to increase the speed and availability of playback. Common digital video formats include Flash, MPEG, AVI, WMV and QuickTime.

Animation :

Animated components are common within both Web and desktop multimedia applications. Using Flash, developers can author FLV files, exporting them as SWF movies for deployment to users. Flash also uses ActionScript code to achieve animated and interactive effects.
 

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