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Artificial Intelligence & Neural Network Question List | Solve

What would need a computer to posses a Turning test? or Define natural language processing & automated reasoning

A computer would need to posses a Turning test or natural language processing & automated reasoning:


The 'Turning Test, proposed by Alan Turning (1950), was designed to provide a satisfactory operational definition of intelligence.The computer would need to possess the following capabilities-'

1.Natural Language processing to enable it to communicate successfully in english.

2.Knowledge representationto store what it knows or hears;

3.Automated reasoningto use the stored information to answer question and new conclusion.

4.Machine learningto adapt to new circumstances and to detect and extrapolate patterns. To pass the total Turning Test, the computer will also need-

5.Computer visionto perceive objects.And

6.Roboticsto manipulate objects and move about.



Define agent, rational agent & ideal agent

Agent:


An agent is just something that acts(agent comes from the latin agree, to do).but computer agents are expected to have other attributes that distinguished them from more "program" such as operating under autonomous control, perceiving their environment, persisting over a prolonged time period, adapting to change and being capable of taking on another's goals.

In other words, an agent is anything that can be viewed as perceiving its environmentthrough sensors and acting upon that environment through effectors.

For Example:


A human agent has eyes, ears and other organs for sensors and hands, legs, mouth, and other body parts for effectors.

Another Example:


A robotic agent substitutes camers and infrared range finders for the sensors and various motors for the effectors.

Rational agent :


A rational agent is one that acts so as to achieve the best outcome or when there is uncertainty, the best expected outcome.

Ideal agent :


An ideal agent is one that always takes the action that is expected to maximize its performance measure, given the percept sequences it has seen so face.
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Write down two advantages of rational agent?

Two advantages of rational agent :


1.It is more general than the "laws of thought" approach, because correct inference is just one of several possible mechanisms for achieving rationality.

2. Second, it is more ameanable to scientific development than are approaches based on human behavior or human thought because the standard of rationality is clearly defined and completely general.

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Explain briefly the foundations of Artificial Intelligence/Importance

Explain briefly the foundations of Artificial Intelligence/Importance :


Philosophy(428 B.C-present) :

  • Can formaln rules be used to draw valid conclusions?
  • How does the mental mind arise from a physical brain?
  • Where does knowledge come from
  • How does knowledge lead to action
Thus, Philosophers(going back to 400 B.C) made AI conceiable by considering the ideas that the mind is in some ways like a machine, that it operates on knowledge encoded in some internal language, and that thought can be used to choose what actions to take.

Mathematics(C800-present) :

  • What are the formal rules to draw valid conclusions?
  • What can be computer?
  • How do we reason with uncertain information?
So, Mathematicians provided the tools to manipulate statements of logical certainty as well as uncertain, probabilities statements.They also set the ground work understanding computatiion and reasoning about algorithms.

Economics(1776-present) :

  • How should we make decissions so as to maximize payoff?
  • How should we do this when others may not go along?
  • How should we do this when the payoff may be far in the future?
Thus, Economists formalized the problem of making decisions that maximizes the expected outcome to the decision maker

Neuroscience(1861-present) :

  • How do brains process information?
So, Neoroscientists involves the nerve system.That is, how the neurons act.

Psychology(1879-present) :

  • How o human and animals think and act?
So,Psychologiests adopted the idea that human and animals can be considered information processing machines.

Computer engineering(1940-present) :

  • How can we build an efficient computer?
So, computer engineers provided the artifacts that make AI applications possible AI programs tend to be large, and they could not work without the great advances in speed and memory that the computer industry has provided.

Control Theory & Cybernetics(1948-present) :

  • How can artifacts operate under their own control?
Thus,Control theory deals with designing devices that act optimally on the basis of feedback from the environment.Initially, the mathematical tools of control theory were quite different from AI, but the fields are coming closer together

Linguistics(1957-present) :

  • How does language relate to thought?
Linguistics showed that languages use fits into this model


Why does an intelligent agent need autonomy

An intelligent agent need autonomy :


It is strongly needed for a rational agent to be autonomous because the environment is always changing-both by the agent itself and by some other external factors.The agent must be capable of testing decisions with the changes of the environment, which is not possible without autonomy.

So, A rational agent should be autonomous it should learn what it can to compensate for partial or incorrect prior knowledge.

Example : A vacuum-cleaning agent that learns to for see where and when additional will appear will do better than one that does not. PopAds.net - The Best Popunder Adnetwork


How can an agent interact with environment through sensors & actuators?

Can an agent interact with environment through sensors & actuators :


An agent is just something that acts(agent comes from the latin agree, to do).but computer agents are expected to have other attributes that distinguished them from more "program" such as operating under autonomous control, perceiving their environment, persisting over a prolonged time period, adapting to change and being capable of taking on another's goals.

In other words, an agent is anything that can be viewed as perceiving its environmentthrough sensors and acting upon that environment through effectors.

A human agent has eyes, ears and other organs for sensors and hands, legs, mouth, and other body parts for effectors.

A robotic agent substitutes camers and infrared range finders for the sensors and various motors for the effectors



What are the difference between omniscience and rational agent?

The difference between omniscience and rational agent :


Rational agent : A rational agent is one that acts so as to achieve the best outcome or when there is uncertainty, the best expected outcome.That is rational agent is one that does the right thing.Obiously, this is better then doing the wrong thing. As a first, approximation, we will say tht the right action in the one that will cause the agent to be most successful.

Example :Suppose an agent have to cross a road.So being rational, it will start crossing the road without seeing any vehicle coming along the same way & before it reach to the other side it would be flattened.

Omniscient agent : An omniscient agent knows the actual outcome of its action, and can act accordingly.

Example : An omniscient agent would not cross the road until it finds that it is in a safe distance from vehicles & would get proper time to cross the road without accident.

Omniscience is impossible in reality but rational agent is possible in reality.


What is Knowledge?

Knowledge :


The meaning of knowledge is closely related to the meaning of intelligence.Intelligence requires the possessions of & access to knowledge.The characteristics of intelligent is that they posses much knowledge can be defuned as the body of facts & principles accumulated by human kind or the act, fact or state of knowing.


Distinguish between computer knowledge & natural knowledge

Distinguish between computer knowledge & natural knowledge :


natural knowledge is likely stored as complex structures of interconnected neurons. The structure corresponds to symbolic of the knowledge possed by the organism, the facts, rules & so on.The average human weights about 3.3pounds and contains and estimated number of 1012 neurons.The neurons and their interconnections capabilities provide about 1012 bits of potential storage capacity.

In computers, knowledge is stored as symbolic structures, but in the form of collections of magnetic spots and voltages state.State of the arts storage in computers is in the range of 1012 bits with capabilities, doubling about every three to four years.

The gap between human & computers storage capacities is narrowing rapidly.

A common way to represent knowledge external to a computer or a human is in the form of written language.

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How can you represent knowledge?Explain briefly

Represent knowledge.Explain briefly :


Knowledge can be defined as the body of facts & principles accumulated by human kind or the act, fact of knoing.Knowledge can be represented in different forms, as mental images in one thoughts, as spoken or written words in some language, as graphical or other pictures & as character string or collection of magnetic spots stored in a computer.Fig-
 Mental images
 
 Written image 
 
 Character images
 
 Binary images 
 
 Magnetic images
 
Fig: Different levels of knowledge representation.


What is difference between declarative & procedural knowledge?

Difference between declarative & procedural knowledge :


Procedural knowledge :- Procedural knowledge is compiled knowledge related to the performance of some task.For Example : The steps used to solve an algebric equation are expressed a procedural knowledge.

Declarative knowledge:-Declarative knowledge, on the other hand, is passive knowledge expressed as statement of facts about the world.Personal data in a database is typical of declarative knowledge.Such data are explicit piecies of independent knowledge. Get Free Traffic


Explain knowledge -based system with components

Explain knowledge -based system with components :


Knowledge based systems, depend on a rich base of knowledge to perform difficult task.

Knowledge based systems including work in vision, learning general problem solving and natural language understanding in turn has led to more emphasis being placed on researh related to knowledge representation, memory organization, and the use and manipulation of knowledge.

Knowledge based systems get their power from the expert knowledge that has been coded into facts, rules, heuristics and procedures.The knowledge is stored in a knowledge base separate from the control and inferencing component.


What is advantages & disadvantages of AI

Advantages of AI :


 1. Faster than Human
 
 2.Multiple task at a time
 
 3.machine can do complex and streeful work
 


Disadvantages of AI :


1.Lacks the human touch

2.Steal human job

3.Only can do programmed work.


Write the difference between object oriented & procedural language

Difference between object oriented & procedural language :


object oriented language procedural language
1.Object oriented language supports prolog . 1.Procedural language are BASIC, COBOL, PASCAL etc.
2.Use heuristics to solve problem. 2.Uses previously defined procedure to solve problems.
3.Most efficient formal processing . 3.Most efficient at numerical processing .
4.Systems created & maintained by programmers. 4.Systems developed & maintained by knowledge engineers .
5.Interactive & cyclic development. 5.Use structuring programming.


Describe the Importance of AI

Describe the Importance of AI :


AI is a branch of computer science concer with the study and creation of computer systems that exhibit some form of intelligence systems that learn new concepts and tasks, systems that can reason and draw useful conclusions about the world around us, systems that can understand a natural langauge or perceive and comperhend a visual scene and systems that perform other types of feats that require human types of intelligence.
 * Artificial intelligent systems behave logically.
 
 * Artificial intelligent systems solve complex problem.
 
 * Artificial intelligent systems are provided nonlinear program navigation.
 
 * Artificial intelligent systems are responsive and adoptive .
 
 * Artificial intelligent systems make effective use of existing information.
 
 * Artificial intelligent systems are user-friendly & highly interactive.
 
 


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